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The following papers on automobile insurance have been published in professional journals, the insurance trade press, and reports. Please contact us by email or postal mail to request a particular article. Please request an article by its  # (number), and be sure to supply your mailing address. Each of these paper publications is now also available on-line in pdf format. The hyperlinks are included with the descriptions below.

 #633   2000
"Why the standard automobile insurance market breaks down in low-income zip codes: A per-mile analysis of Texas auto insurance based on testimony before the Texas House Committee on Insurance April 6 and 13, 1999" by P. Butler. Report to the Legislature, 37 pages. 633b-4522.pdf
The Texas legislature relied on this analysis of zip-code pricing (red lining) and uninsured cars in passing the "cents-per-mile choice" law to cure these and other maladies produced by fixed annual rates per-car. As introduced, the legislation drafted to NOW's specifications made the cents-per-mile option a "mandatory offer" to all customers by all companies after a two year phase-in period.  As passed, the law makes offering cents-per-mile rates as an alternative to annual rates per car voluntary for companies. Consumers need to demand that companies take the cure: measure the miles of protection they sell for the customers who want it.
 #594   1998
"Gas-Tax and Time-Period Insurance Methods Equally Flawed" by P. Butler. National Underwriter trade weekly, June 15, 1998, 1 page. 594.pdf
 #570   1996
"Automobile Insurance Pricing: Operating Cost versus Ownership Cost; the Implications for Women" by P. Butler. Proceedings, Women's Travel Issues Second National Conference, Chapter 39, 737-751. Federal Highway Administration,
A good summary of most of the issues raised in previous papers, but also criticizes on risk-measurement grounds the pay-at-the-pump proposal to fund auto insurance as a per-gallon surcharge on gasoline.
 #562   1995
"Discussion of Robert L. Brown's `Recent Canadian Human Rights Decisions Having an Impact on Gender-Based Risk Classification Systems'" by P. Butler. Journal of Actuarial Practice 3: 181-190. 562.pdf
Discusses the difference between the need for a constitutional ban on sex classifications and the allowable use of age classifications for insurance and other purposes.
 #516   1993
"Cost-Based Pricing of Individual Automobile Risk Transfer: Car-Mile Exposure Unit Analysis" by P. Butler. Journal of Actuarial Practice  1: 51-84. (Invited paper for the inaugural issue.) 516.pdf
 #486   1993
"Operation of an Audited-Mile/Year Automobile Insurance System Under Pennsylvania Law" by P. Butler. 486.pdf. Also: Casualty Actuarial Society Forum Summer 1993: 307-338. (starting on pdf page 315 of 23 Mb file).
 #418   1990
"Measure Exposure for Premium Credibility" by P. Butler. National Underwriter (trade weekly) (Invited article for annual Auto Insurance issue.) April 23, 1990. 2 pages. 418.pdf
Describes what's not credible to consumers with trying to charge for insurance through a fixed charge on car ownership, or through a proposed surcharge on gasoline. Charging by the odometer mile, however, would be credible to consumers, while simultaneously having statistical stability and credibility.


"Unmetered Premiums Subsidize the Overuse of Automobile Transportation" by P. Butler. Contingencies: The Journal of the Actuarial Profession, American Academy of Actuaries, May/June 1990. 4 pages. 401.pdf
Begins with insurers admitting that "we cannot tell people to drive less" by providing premium incentives in order to lower insurance costs, but instead that society "may need to build better public transportation systems" to do so. Provides a summary of #342 (see below) and adds the effects on insurance of reduced driving following the closing of the Bay Area Bridge by the California earthquake in 1989.

 #394 1989
"Driver Record: a Political Red Herring That Reveals the Basic Flaw in Automobile Insurance Pricing" by P. Butler and T. Butler. Journal of Insurance Regulation 8: 200-234. 394.pdf
Shows that the cost "justification" for charging insureds for claims and traffic tickets is only a cost artifact or symptom caused by using annual costs per car instead of costs per mile. Pricing by driver record, like pricing by credit score, is merely another cost-difference symptom produced by auto insurers' refusal to use odometers to measure the protection they sell. Battles over banning or regulating these symptoms, like battles over pricing by driver sex and zip code (redlining), serve to distract attention from the underlying deliberate ignorance itself. Eliminate the ignorance and the symptoms go too.
 #378   1989
"Insurance Department 'Catch 22' Shields Auto Insurers From Consumer Challenges" by P. Butler, T. Butler, and L. L. Williams. Journal of Insurance Regulation 7: 285-289. 378.pdf
Insurance Commissioner required insurance odometer data on miles, which companies purposely refuse to collect, and rejects government data as basis for finding illegal rate discrimination against drivers with cars driven less than average.
 #342   1988
"Sex-Divided Mileage, Accident, and Insurance Cost Data Show That Auto Insurers Overcharge Most Women" by P. Butler, T. Butler, and L. L. Williams. Journal of Insurance Regulation 6: 243-284 (Pt. I), 373-420 (Pt. II). 342.pdf
Based on the trial record from a rate discrimination lawsuit brought by Pennsylvania NOW in 1986 against five major automobile insurers and includes a critical examination of actual company rate manual price distinctions by driver sex, age, car use, etc. compared with government data on accidents and annual miles by driver and vehicle type.
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